ANCIENT AND NEW MENORAHS - 11th-13th Century

This website shows historic menorahs from the eleventh to the thirteenth century. Menorah illustrations from other centuries: Ancient Menorahs until the 1st century, 2nd century3rd century, 4th century, 5th century6th-10th century, 14th century, 15th century, 16th century, 17th century, 18th century, 19th century, 20th century, 21st century and coins.

Medieval Menorahs - 11th Century

Medieval seven branches candlestick Menorah with flowers in Biblia, 11th century

11th century. Medieval Menorah with flowers. Title: "Biblia quaedam pauperum 'Legitur in Genesi .. quod dominus dixit serpenti' cum multis egregiis picturis" by Petrus de Dacia. Included work: "Compendium figurativum Bibliae 'Considerans historiae sacrae prolixitatem' cum figuris pictis. Hominis quinque aetates cum picturis. Canon supra calendarium magistri Petri Daci (superstitiose quaedam)". Germany, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, BSB Clm 19414. Source:  Link1Link2

chandelier menorah Essen Cathedral, Essener Münster, Germany Leuchter

1000. The chandelier of the Essen Cathedral (Essener Münster, Germany), is an important bronze work of the early Middle Ages and the oldest preserved seven-armed church chandelier at all. The candlestick was made of 46 parts and shows traces of old gilding. The chandelier is a total of 2.26 meters high and has a span of 1.88 meters. Source:  Link1Link2 

Essen Cathedral menorah. seven-branched candlestick Germany

1000-1003. Essen Cathedral. There is an elaborate seven-branched candlestick at the juncture of the nave and choir, modelled on one known to have existed in the Temple at Jerusalem. It is of the conventional form, but is a rare piece of church furniture in that it dates from 1003, when it was presented by the Abbess Matilda, sister of the Emperor Otho II. Since it stands six or eight feet in height, this candlestick is a notable and conspicuous object. The Project Gutenberg E-Book. Source: Link

Amsterdam. Hall with objects from churches and monasteries. Large candlestick menorah

1000. Amsterdam. Hall with objects from churches and monasteries. Large candlestick with almond blossoms. Exhibition From the Treasures of the Middle Ages. Photo: Rijksmuseum, Afdeling Beeld, 1949. Source:  Link1,  Link2

Candelabro Trivulzio in the Milan Cathedral menorah

11th century. Candelabro Trivulzio in the Milan Cathedral (Italian: Duomo di Milano). 12 meters high. Sculpted by a French goldsmith, such Nicola da Verdun. Source:  Link1Link2 

Christian Topography Kosmas Sinai Menorah pigeons

11th century. The Christian Topography by Kosmas Indikopleustes was both one of the most perplexing and one of the most elaborately illustrated manuscripts of the Byzantine era. Written in the 6th-century, the manuscript survives in 3 copies: Vatican Greek 699 (9th century), and two 11th-century copies: Sinai Greek 1186 in the library of Monastery of St. Katherine in Sinai (see illustration left; Christian Lamps as pigeons), and Pluteus IX.28 (see 1010 AD).  Link1Link2Link3Link4Link5 

Menorah Kosmas Indikopleustes phil. 9/28 Florence

1010. Menorah representation of Kosmas Indikopleustes, phil. 9/28 (Florence: Laurentianus Plutei IX.28). A copy of a manuscript from the 6th century. The 7 lamps symbolize the 7 gifts of the Holy Spirit. The clay oil lamps are transformed into pigeons whose beaks produce flames. Kosmas was a Greek merchant and later hermit from Alexandria. His work Christian Topography (550 AD) contained some of the earliest and most famous world maps.  Link1Link2Link3Link4Link5  

Rich Bernwald Gospels Menorah Zechariah

1015. The Rich Bernward Gospels (German: Kostbares Bernward-Evangeliar) are a richly decorated evangeliary in the Hildesheim Cathedral Museum. Content of the image: The proclamation of the birth of John the Baptist to Zechariah and Zechariah is silent before the people. Source:  Link1Link2Link3 

 

 

Ketubba for Evdokia bat Caleb and Namer b. Elqana Mastaura Byzantinum menorah

1022. Ketubba for Evdokia bat Caleb and Namer b. Elqana dated Friday 4th Nisan 4782 (=1022 CE) in Masṭaura in Byzantium. Witnessed by Judah b. Nabon, Moses b. Leon, Selaḥya b. Joseph, and Moses b. Sabbetay. Ketubba text continues onto the verso. Language(s): Aramaic. Vellum is ruled with a sharp point on verso. Several words (mainly Greek) are vocalised with Tiberian vowel signs. The last line of recto is decorated with swirled letter tails and the drawing of a menorah mid-line. Cambridge, T-S 16.374. Link

child's early attempts alphabet, drawings menorah, Cairo Genizah

11th century? A child's early attempts at writing the alphabet, along with childish drawings (including a menorah, a person or camel and scribbling). Alphabetical exercises, with Tiberian vocalisation, poetry. Cairo Genizah. Physical Location: Cambridge University Library. Classmark: T-S K5.19. Source: Link

Seven-armed candlestick menorah; musical instruments. Biblioteca Vallicelliana

1070- 1100 A.D. Catholic Book. Language: Latin. Author: Catholic Church. Page 25v: Seven-arm candlestick menorah; c. 26r: musical instruments. Biblioteca Vallicelliana, Rome, Italy. Manuscript Ms.E 24. Source:  Link1,  Link2

Leaf from a giant Bible. Italy, Central. The seven-branched candlestick menorah, Isidore of Seville

11th-12th century. Leaf from a giant Bible. Origin: Italy, Central. The seven-branched candlestick (menorah), accompanied by a text derived mainly from Isidore of Seville, On the verso, 8 miniatures of musical instruments, including the psalterium, cithara, tintinnabulum, sambuca, pennula, fistula. Source:  Link1,  Link2Link3

Bifolium Children's Alphabet Primer. menorah Hebrew

11th-12th century. Bifolium from a Children's Alphabet Primer. illuminated carpet page consisting of a menorah and six-pointed stars, followed by alphabetical exercises from a children's Hebrew textbook. The consonants alef to he are presented with different Tiberian vowels, interspersed with star designs. Blue, red, and yellow ink on parchment; 6 9/16 x 9 3/16 in. (16.7 x 23.4 cm). Taylor-Schechter Genizah Collection, Cambridge University (T-S K5.13). Source:  Link1,  Link1,  Link2

Jewish lead seal with menorah. Aramaic inscription, archangel Gabriel, Aries, goat

11th century. Jewish lead seal with menorah, 5.94 g. Aramaic inscription, archangel Gabriel, Aries, goat?. Rev .: circulating Aramaic inscription, menorah, etrog, lulav and shofar. The combination of Gabriel and Aries or goat should be a reference to Daniel 8. While the seven-arm candlestick is commonly known as a Jewish symbol, etrog (a citrus fruit) and lulav (palm branch) are rather unknown as cult items of the Sukkot (Feast of Tabernacles). Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung, Auction 147 (2006), Lot 2499. Source: Link

Medieval holy land Jewish Bronze ring menorah

11th-13th century. Medieval holy land Jewish bronze seal ring; oval shaped band forming a thick bezel depicting a menorah type cross, possibly worn by a Jewish priest. intact with no restoration. Measurements: 18 mm (inner diameter); 11 gram. Source: Link

Zamora menorah, Hanukkah Spain Sefardi

11th-12th century. Signs to be erected in Zamora (Spain), one of the greatest Iberian centers of Jewish life before the Expulsion in 1492. The experts defend the Sephardic origin of the inscription. The piece de resistance is a naïf hanukkia scratched out on one of the masonry stones at the entrance to the Church of San Pedro and San Idelfonso. Situated at ground level, this anomaly was not discovered until 2008. Source:  Link1Link2Link3Link4Link5Link6  


Medieval Menorahs - 12th Century

Kosmas Indikopleustes Smyrna Mary Menorah

1100. Interpretation of Kosmas Indikopleustes (6th century), Smyrna. Since the 12th century there are representations of the 7-armed candelabra as a symbol of Mary. The menorah is a sign of the Holy Spirit, the Catholic "Mother of God" was suspected of being a mediator between the OT and NT. Published 1899 by Josef Strzygowski (Germany): "Der Bilderkreis des griechischen Physiologus, des Kosmas Indikopleustes und Oktateuch nach Handschriften der Bibliothek zu Smyrna."  Link1Link2  

bronze seven-armed candlestick of the Braunschweig (Brunswick) Cathedral in Germany

12th century. The bronze seven-armed candlestick is one of the most valuable pieces of equipment of the Braunschweig (Brunswick) Cathedral in Germany. Similar candlesticks can only be found in the Essen Cathedral, the Klosterneuburg Abbey and the Cathedral in Milan. High: 4,80m, 400kg. C. Moritz painted the candlestick in the 19th century. Source:  Link1Link2Link3Link4Link5  

Menorah in Klosterneuburg Monastery is located northwest of Vienna, Austria

1135. The Klosterneuburg Monastery is located northwest of Vienna, Austria. The candelabrum is the oldest surviving piece of the church. He was probably cast in bronze in Verona. In the sources the candlestick is called "sambucus" (Holunderbaum, elderberry tree) because of its tree - like form. Source: Link

Klosterneuburg siebenarmige Leuchter Menorah. Bronze Menora, Austria

1135. The Klosterburg Monastery, Collegiate Church, lower Austria, Austria. Cast work-Bronze. Same candlestick as shown above.

Source:  Link1Link2Link3-Lilienfeld  

Menorah Girona Catalonia Spain, Museu d’història dels Jueus

12th-15th century (?). Menorah from Girona, Catalonia (Spain), Museu d’història dels Jueus. Jewish Catalonia ranges from the 11th to the 15th century, 500 years of history. This is a piece of forged crafts for dating uncertain. The 7 grips to hold the candles are arranged all at the same height. The museum has not been able to prove its religious use: it could be both a Christian liturgical object and a decorative one of a synagogue or a Jewish home. Source:  Link1Link2

peacock menorah Iran, seven small oil cups

12th-14th century. A Near East peacock form menorah, Iran. Cast brass stylized peacock form menorah depicted with a spread fan tail featuring seven small oil cups. In the Torah, the peacock is described as a symbol of the faith of the people. Dimensions: Height: 4 1/4 inches (10.8 cm). Source: Link

Bible de Saint-Thierr, medieval menorah, 12th century

12th century. Latin Bible (Bible de Saint-Thierry). God speaking to Moses from the Sanctuary. Moses holding the tables of the Law; altar, candlestick with seven branches. Origin: Eastern France (Saint-Thierry-lès-Reims, abbey). Reims, BM, 0022 (A. 010). Source:  Link1Link2 

menorah in Biblia. V.T. Octateuchus. Greek Text. Polonsky Foundation Digitization Project

12th-14th century. Title: Biblia. V.T. Octateuchus. Greek Text. Contributor: Polonsky Foundation Digitization Project. Images Copyright Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. Shelfmark Vat.gr.746.pt.2. Source:  Link1,  Link2

Bede Menorah, Bede's About the Tabernacle

1150. Diagram, in Bede's 'About the Tabernacle'. Bede (ca. 673-735), star author of the twin monastery of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow, is most famous for his 'History of the English Church and People,' but he wrote other books, too, most of them on the bible. In the middle ages, one of his most influential works was on the description of the Tabernacle built in the desert by Moses, in Exodus 24-31. Medium: Ink and pigments on vellum. Copyright: The British Library. Source:  Link1Link2Link3

Hildesheim Cathedral Menorah Fresco

12th century (mid). Fresco cycle of the upper vestibule of Hildesheim Cathedral (Germany), which was demolished in 1841, but copies were preserved. Zechariah stands before the seven-armed candlestick, which is between the stone with the 7 eyes and an olive tree. Behind it stand the apostles. Heimann, F. C.: Bilderhandschrift des XI. Jahrhunderts in der Dombibliothek zu Hildesheim, In: Zeitschrift für christliche Kunst 1890 (3), Heft 5. Uni Heidelberg. Source:  Link1Link2  

Rashi menorah Commentary Mishnah Maimonides Moses

1167-1168. Commentary on Mishnah (Neziḳin and Ḳodashim) by Maimonides Moses [author]. Drawing from the hand-written copy of the Rambam's Mishnah Torah. Rashi and Maimonides held that the branched were straight; other Jewish authorities, both classical (e.g. Philo, Josephus) and medieval (Ezra) state that the arms were round. Archaeological evidence indicates that they were not straight, but rounded. Bodleian Library MS. Pococke 295, University of Oxford. Source:  Link1,  Link2,  Link3Link4 

 Hortus Deliciarum Menorah, Herrad von Landsberg

1167-1185. Presentation of the vision of Zechariah. The candlestick is flanked by two olive trees. The menorah is related to the spirit of the Lord. The Hortus Deliciarum (Latin for Garden of Delights), the first encyclopaedia verifiably written by a woman, comes from Herrad von Landsberg (1125-1195), who was abbess of the Hohenburg monastery on Odilienberg (Alsace, Germany at that time). Most of the manuscript was a compendium of 12th century knowledge. Source:  Link1Link2,  Link3Link4 

Latin Gumbertus Bible  menorah, Gumbertusbibel menora, 12th century medieval bible

12th century. Latin Gumbertus Bible (Gumbertusbibel). The death of the sons of Aaron. Library of the Gumbertusstift in Ansbach in Germany. The Gumbertus Bible is an illustrated medieval manuscript. It belongs to the impressive giant bibles, which contain the complete Bible text in a volume. It measures 67 × 46 cm and counts 394 parchment sheets with magnificent illustrations, including eleven pages. It is one of the most important works of art in Romanesque book art. Source:  Link1Link2

Histoire sainte  abrégée. Compedium, candlestick seven branches menorah

12th century. Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi. Title: "Histoire sainte abrégée." Images of the candlestick with seven branches (menorah); Temptation of Adam and Eve; Noah planting the vine; Biblical Genealogy... Author: Petrus Pictaviensis. Bibliothèque municipale de Lyon, Ms 863. Source:  LinkLink2Link3 

menorah 12th century. Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi by Petrus Pictaviensis

12th century. Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi by Petrus Pictaviensis. Origin: France. © Institut de recherche et d'histoire des textes - CNRS; Shelfmark: Auxerre - BM - ms. 0145. Source:  Link1Link2Link3 

Menorah stone from Sobrarbe Aragon Spain

12th-14th century. Menorah stone from Sobrarbe. Sobrarbe is one of the comarcas of Aragon, Spain. It is located in the northern part of the province of Huesca, part of the autonomous community of Aragon in Spain. The shape is reminiscent of the menorah stone of Andriake and Priene (today's Turkey from the 3rd-4th century). When the Aragonese Jews were expelled between 1492 and 1515, a great economic and social vacuum was left behind. Source:  Link1Link2


Medieval Menorahs - 13th Century

seven-armed menorah in Petrus (Peter) of Poitiers Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi, Northern France, Cambridge

1200-1250. Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi by Petrus (Peter) of Poitiers (ca. 1130-1205). Northern France. Seven-armed menorah with almond blossoms. Cambridge (Mass.), Harvard University, Houghton Library Typ 0216 (roll) (Digital Scriptorium, app.cul.columbia.edu). Source:  Link1,  Link2,  Link3Link4 

Peter Petrus of Poitiers Menorah 13th century, Compendium historiae in geneologia Christi

1200-1250. Full side view from the same source given above.

Petrus Comestor Historia scholastica Menorah candlestick, MS 29

1200-1225. The MS 29 is an early 13th-century manuscript containing Peter of Poitiers (d. 1205), Genealogia historiarum (Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi) (also in CCCC MSS 83 and 437), and Petrus Comestor (d. c. 1187), Historia scholastica. The manuscript contains a number of illustrations, including a seven-branched candlestick and a seraph, with accompanying allegorical interpretations. Latin. Cambridge, Corpus Christi College. Source: Link

Rashi, Commentary Hebrew Bible menorah, Oppenheim 34

1201-1225. Rashi, Commentary on the Hebrew Bible with additions by other authors (Pentateuch, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, Minor Prophets, Five Scrolls, Psalms, Job). Language: Hebrew. Source: Polonsky Foundation Digitization Project. Rights: Photo: © Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford, Shelfmark: Bodleian Library MS. Oppenheim 34. Source:  Link1Link2 

Biblia sacra moralisata. Biblical emblems menorah, Latin 11560 BnF

1201-1300. Biblia sacra moralisata. Biblical emblems, including the end of Job, the Psalter, the books of Solomon and the Prophets. Language: Latin. There is a mistake in this illustration, because this Menorah has only 5 arms. French Title: "Emblèmes bibliques, volume comprenant la fin de Job, le Psautier, les livres de Salomon et les Prophètes." Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des manuscrits, Latin 11560, folio 415. Gallica. Source: Link

Bible moralisée menorah Paris medieval

1225-1249. Bible moralisée. Ordering party: Louis IX (Saint Louis; Ludwig IX; 1214-1270). Origin: Paris. Language: Latin. Österreichische National-Bibliothek (ÖNB), Cod. 1179 HAN MAG. Source:  Link1Link2 

Menorah Bible moralisée, Biblia historica medieval

1225-1249. Bible moralisée. The book was in the 16th century in the possession of the Mercy family from Luxembourg. Language: Latin. Title: "Biblia historica-allegorica iconologica Veteris Testamenti cum textu marginali gallico. - Tabulae-Systematik: Theologia: Biblica historia." Österreichische National-Bibliothek (ÖNB), Cod. 2554 HAN MAG. Source:  Link1Link2 

Bible moralisée. candlestick menorahgold. Paris, France. MS. Bodl. 270b

1226–1275. Bible moralisée, part I. A candlestick (menorah) is being wrought out of one talent of gold. Language: Latin. Place of origin: Paris, France. Shelfmark: MS. Bodl. 270b, fol. 053v. Source:  Link1,   Link2,   Link3  

Medieval menorah mural paintings, St. Peter's Church Benedictine Monastery Germany

1226-1250. Medieval menorah mural paintings (visual works, red chalk). Provenance: Former St. Peter's Church of the Benedictine Monastery of St. Peter and Paul, Peterskirche, southern transept, south wall, Petersberg, Erfurt, Germany. Institution: Bildarchiv Foto Marburg, Germany. Source:  Link1Link2 

Petrus Pictaviensis menorah, Compedium genealogia Christi

1230-1240. Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi. Author: Petrus Pictaviensis. Origin West Germany (Rhineland). Tournai, Bibl. du Séminaire, 004, f. 002v-003v, Folio/page: f. 003. Source:  Link1Link2 

Commentary on the Bible by Rashi Menorah in Bibekommentar Rashi Germany

1233. Commentary on the Bible by Rashi and others (German: Bibelkommentar des Rashi). Würzburg, Germany. Joseph Shlomo ben Shmuel (Scribe). Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. Source:  Link1,  Link2,  Link3

The menorah, Petrus of Poitiers, Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi, Munich, Bavaria, Germany

13th century. The menorah, Petrus of Poitiers, Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi, Munich, Bavaria, Germany. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek BSB clm. 8715, fol. 6v, (Klemm 1998, Cat. 23, fig. 94). The decorative elements and their order differ from ours. Source: Link

Petri Comestoris historia scholastica menorah, 13th century

13th century. "Petri Comestoris historia scholastica : praemittitur Patrum et Regum veteris Testamenti series chronologica ab Adamo ad Christum ; ad calcem verò subjicitur catalogus Imperatorum et summorum Pontificum à Christo ad annum 1200." Language: Latin. Material: Parchment. Gallica. Bibliothèque nationale de France. Département des manuscrits. Latin 5101. Source:  Link1Link2 

menorah Latin Manuscript. Postille super Matheum

13th century. Latin Manuscript. "Postille super Matheum, Johannem et Marcum. Pictavensis, Compendium historie in genealogia Christi... Postille super Prologos et Genesim." Author:  Petrus Pictaviensis (112.?-1205). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Gallica, Latin 14435, vue 143 - folio NP. Source:  LinkLink2 

Medieval menorah, Pentateuch, Five Scrolls and haftarot according to the Ashkenazic rite menorah, 1239

1239. Pentateuch, Five Scrolls and haftarot according to the Ashkenazic rite. Polonsky Foundation Digitization Project. Images Copyright Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Shelf mark Vat.ebr.14, fol. 104. Source:  Link1Link2

Elia ben Berechiah Pentateuch Menorah 1239

1239. Elia ben Berechiah Pentateuch, France. Pentateuch with five scrolls and Haftarot by Elia [Elijah] ben Berechiah ha-Nakdan (Scribe). Fol. 155v: Lower margin. An upright seven branched menorah with three legs, main shaft is higher than the other branches, knobs and flowers, flames turn towards the central shaft. Vatican Library (Shelf mark: VAT. EBR. 14, fol. 155). Photograph Copyright: Center for Jewish Art. Source:  Link1,  Link2

menorah Peter Poitiers (Petrus Pictaviensis), Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi

1250-1260. This illuminated roll contains a copy of Peter of Poitiers's (Petrus Pictaviensis) (b. c. 1120, d. 1205) Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi, the genealogy of Christ from Adam, created in England in approximately 1250-1260. It is similar in content and arrangement to the Royal MS 14 B IX. Among the additions to the basic text is a commentary on the Lord's Prayer at the end of the roll. British Library, Add MS 60628/1. Source:  Link1,  Link2

Menorah, Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi. Peter of Poitiers

1250-1299. Peter of Poitiers, Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi. This illuminated roll contains a copy of Peter of Poitiers's (Petrus Pictaviensis) (b. c. 1120, d. 1205) Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi, the genealogy of Christ beginning with Adam, created in England in the second half of the thirteenth century. It is similar in content and arrangement to the slightly earlier Additional MS 60628/1. British Library, Royal MS 14 B IX. Source:  Link1Link2  

menorah Peter of Poitiers, Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi. MS M.628

1250-1299. Peter of Poitiers (ca. 1130-1205) Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi. England, MS M.628 fol. 1r. In mandorla, Christ, crossed nimbus, raising right hand in blessing. The mandorla is flanked and held by four angels each in demi-lune. All enclosed in frame resting on candelabrum. © The Morgan Library & Museum, 225 Madison Avenue, New York. Source:  Link1Link2 

menorah in Palatina Library, Parma, Italy Cod. Parm. 2295

13th-14th century. The Palatina Library, Parma, Italy Cod. Parm. 2295. Language: Hebrew. © Biblioteca Palatina in Parma. This photo is only a screenshot from the website of the National Library of Israel. Please see the original source in better quality. Source:  Link1,  Link2

menorah in Commentary Torah. The Palatina Library, Parma, Italy Cod. Parm. 3204. Rashi

13th-14th cenutury. Commentary Torah... The Palatina Library, Parma, Italy Cod. Parm. 3204. Author: Rashi (1040-1105). © Biblioteca Palatina in Parma. This photo is only a screenshot from the website of the National Library of Israel. Please see the original source in better quality. Source:  Link1,  Link2

menorah Rashi's Commentary on the Pentateuch, Salomon ben Isaac (1040-1105). Franconia, Germany Franken

1260? Rashi's Commentary on the Pentateuch, Author: Salomon ben Isaac (1040-1105). Franconia, Germany (Franken). Paris, BnF RC-A-57116, hébr. 155, fol. 110v. Source:  Link1,  Link2

medieval Pentateuch Hafṭarot candlestick menorah, Harley MS 5683

1260-1299. Medieval Pentateuch and Hafṭarot provided with vowel-points, with a sketch of the candlestick menorah (Folio 10r). Language: Hebrew. Material: Parchment. The Harley manuscripts form one of the foundation collections of the British Library, Harley MS 5683. Source: Link

Rashi Menorah. Medieval Commentary on Exodus 25 by Solomon ben Isaac. France. Drawing of the Menorah

13th century. Commentary on Exodus 25 by Solomon ben Isaac, known as Rashi. France. This drawing of the Menorah is placed within the column of text as a sign that it is not meant to be decorative, but is a diagram to clarify the description in the biblical passage. 12 x 19 9/16 in. (30.5 x 49.7 cm), MS. Opp. Add. Fol. 69, fol. 40a. Source:  Link1,  Link2,  Link3

Menorah in Medieval Bible. Image Prologue of the Apocalypse. Monster. Argument. St. John's Vision. Revelation

1265. Medieval Bible (without Psalms). Image description: Prologue of the Apocalypse. Monster. Argument. St. John's Vision. Revelation. Captial A farming the recumbent Saint. A trumpeter. The seven-branched candelabrum. Place of origin: Bologna, Italy. Collection: Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts. Shelfmark: MS. Canon. Bibl. Lat. 56, folio 428v. Source: Link

Menorah in Toledo Bible. Italy Palatina Library, Parm. Ms. 2668

1276/77. Name/Title: Toledo Bible. This photo released by the Palatina Library, based in Parma, Italy, shows a folio from a 13th century Hebrew bible written in Toledo, Spain. Artist/ Maker: Hayyim ben Israel (Scribe). Origin: Spain, Toledo Province. Location: Italy, Parma, Biblioteca Palatina, Parm. Ms. 2668. Photograph Copyright: Palatina Library, HOPD; Center for Jewish Art. Source:  Link1,  Link2Link3Link4

Tanakh. The first volume of the Bible with masorah magna and parva. Menorah, Harley MS 5710

13th century. Title: Tanakh. The first volume of the Bible with masorah magna and parva. Menorah, surrounded by foliate scrolls inhabited by hybrids, at the end of the Pentateuch. Italy (Rome?). British Library, Harley MS 5710. Source:  Link1a,  Link1b,  Link2,  Link3,  Link4,  Link5Link6

menorah Commentary on the Mishnah (Order Ḳodashim). Maimonides, Moses. Shelfmark: MS. Bodley Or. 650

1276-1300. Title: Commentary on the Mishnah (Order Ḳodashim). Creator: Maimonides, Moses [author]. Shelfmark: MS. Bodley Or. 650 Folio/page: 47r. Source: Polonsky Foundation Digitization Project. Rights: Photo: © Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford. Source: Link

Menorah Miscellany of biblical French Miscellany, British Museum Pentateuch, Hafṭarot MS 11639

1277-1324, Miscellany of biblical and other texts ('The Northern French Miscellany' or earlier 'the British Museum Miscellany'): including the Pentateuch, Hafṭarot... - One of the most lavishly illustrated surviving Jewish manuscripts made in northern Europe. This manuscript was digitized by the British Library's Hebrew Manuscripts Digitization Project. British Library Add. MS 11639, folio 522v. Source: Link

Bamberg Mahzor, Menorah of Zechariah's Vision, 1279

1279. Bamberg Mahzor, Menorah of Zechariah's Vision. Origin: Bamberg, a town in Upper Franconia, Bavaria, Germany. The Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS), MS. 4843, Fol. 3v. Photograph Copyright: Center for Jewish Art. Source: Link

Aaron Lighting the Menorah, British Library, London, Add MS 11639

1280. Aaron Lighting the Menorah. Full-page miniature of Aaron pouring oil into the lighted lamps of the Tabernacle menorah. Caption: ‘This is the menorah, and Aaron putting oil to the lamps.’ Dimensions:16,2 x 12,1 cm. British Library, London, Add MS 11639. Source:  Link1,  Link2Link3,  Link4

menorah in Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi. Petrus Pictaviensis, Peter; Pierre de Poitiers

1280-1299. Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi. Author: Petrus Pictaviensis (Peter; Pierre de Poitiers, †1205). France. Paris, Bibl. Sainte-Geneviève, ms. 1212. © Institut de recherche et d'histoire des textes - CNRS. Source:  Link1Link2Link3  

menorah in Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi. Manuscript France, Pierpont Morgan Library. MS M.367

1280-1299. Title: "Compendium historiae in genealogia Christi." Manuscript written and illuminated in France, probably Picardy, late 13th century. Attributed to Peter of Poitiers (ca. 1130-1205). Pierpont Morgan Library. MS M.367. Source: Link

English Bible moralisée Menora medieval

1280-1295. Illuminated Bible moralisée. The Bible moralisée functioned as a picture book of the Bible, but also offered the reader biblical interpretation. This manuscript is the only English Bible moralisée. It was copied from a French Bible moralisée in three parts (now Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Bodley 270b; Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS lat. 11560; and London, British Library, Harley MSS 1526-1527). This picture is from the British Library, Add MS 18719. Source: Link 

menorah Medieval Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), Burgos. Manuscript

13th century (1250-1275). Medieval Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), Prophets and Hagiographers. Burgos. Manuscript. On the side of the page, a plant or a seven-armed Menorah was painted on a tripod for decoration. Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des manuscrits, Hébreu 12. Source:  Link1

13th-14th century. R. Elhanan's Pentateuch and Hagiographa menorah

13th-14th century. R. Elhanan's Pentateuch and Hagiographa. In the outer margin the micrographic massorah forms an eight-branched menorah with an overturned six-branched menorah as its base. Concentric circles at the center of the menorah's shaft enclose the Hebrew number for Psalm 25. Origin: Germany, Italy. Estense University Library, Alpha.J.1.22. Photograph Copyright: Center for Jewish Art. Source: Link

Latin Bible menorah from Padua, Italy. Apocalypse menorah, Christ sending Angel to John

1287. Latin Bible from Padua, Italy. Apocalypse: Christ sending Angel to John. John, nimbed, semi-reclining, holding right hand to face, looks toward horn blown by angel, nimbed. Above them is candelabrum.  Scene within initial M decorated with foliate ornament and with foliate extenderterminating in foliate medallion enclosing bird. Scribe: Mutinensis de Grasulfo. Pierpont Morgan Library. MS M.436. Source: Link

harvesting of olives oil Temple Menorah. Pentateuch Shlomo a-Cohen

1294. This is not a Menorah, but it shows the harvesting of olives and making oil for the Temple Menorah. Page from the Pentateuch. The scribe Shlomo a-Cohen. Parchment, Indian ink. German Switzerland. National Library, Paris, France. BnF RC-C-15620, RC-C-14978. Source:  Link1,  Link2,  Link3

Aaron menorah, Franconian Bible (Franken-Bibel), South Germany, Franconia

1294/5. Aaron and the menorah, Franconian Bible (Franken-Bibel), South Germany, Franconia. Shlomo ha-Cohen Bible. Paris, BnF RC-B-07782, hébr. 5, fol. 118 (Sed-Rajna 1994, Cat. 87) (Sed-Rajna 1994, Cat. 71). Source:  Link1,  Link2Link3

Latin Bible France. Zechariah: Vision, Candelabrum, candlestick and seven oil lamps menorah

13th century (end). Latin Bible from France. Zechariah: Vision, Candelabrum, in lower compartment of decorated initial I are candlestick and seven oil lamps. In upper margin fantastic animal. In center margin is man, wearing hat, with left hand raised, standing upon fantastic animal. In lower margin is dog pursuing rabbit. Pierpont Morgan Library. MS M.969. Source: Link

menorah Maimonides' Mishneh Torah, mediaeval Hebrew art, Budapest MS Kaufmann A 77

1296. Maimonides' Mishneh Torah, which is considered as one of the absolute masterpieces of mediaeval Hebrew art on account of its decorations and splendid illustrations. Parchment, gold leaf. From North France. National Academic Library, Budapest (MS Kaufmann A 77). Source:  Link1,  Link2

Rothschild Pentateuch Menorah, medieval Hebrew manuscript menorah, 1296

1296. Menorah of the Tabernacle (Book of Leviticus) from the Rothschild Pentateuch, France and/or Germany. Leaf: 10 7/8 x 8 1/4 in. (27.5 x 21 cm). Ms. 116 (2018.43), fol. 226v. The J. Paul Getty Museum has the Rothschild Pentateuch. Created by an unknown artist. Involved: Joel ben Simeon (German second half of 15th century), Elijah ben Meshallum (active 13th century), Elijah ben Jehiel (active 13th century), Commentary by Rashi (French, 1040 - 1105). Source:  Link1,  Link2Link3

A Jewish manuscript smuggled into Israel from Damascus in a Mossad spy operation in the early 1990s

13th-14th century? A Jewish manuscript smuggled into Israel from Damascus in a Mossad spy operation in the early 1990s, at Israel’s National Library in Jerusalem. Photo credit: AP Photo/Sebastian Scheiner. Source: Link

Medieval Perpignan Bible, copied by Solomon ben Raphael seven-branched menorah,  BnF hébr. 7

1299. Perpignan Bible, copied by Solomon ben Raphael for his personal use. Perpignan, the year 5059 of Creation. The seven-branched candelabrum flanked by a pair of ash shovels, the manna vase and its lid set with a blue stone, the branch Aaron's flower...; in a left column, the cherubim of the mercy seat. The mercy seat is set on the Ark of the Covenant, whose open doors reveal the two tablets of the Law bearing the first words of the Ten Commandments. Paris, BnF hebr. 7, fols. 12v-13. Gallica.   Link1,  Link2,  Link3 Link4Link5 

Cervera Bible menorah, 1299 golden lampstand menorah, Medieval

1299-1300. Cervera Bible: Portugal's Treasure. The codex is among the oldest and most significant Sephardi Bibles that survived the destruction of most of the Jewish communities in the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon since 1391 and the expulsion of the Jews from Spain, in 1492, and from Portugal, in 1498. This beautiful and famous image shows Zechariahs vision (Zech 4:1-5) with the golden lampstand (menorah) between two olive trees.  Source: please see links below.

Cervera Bible Menorah 1299-1300 AD CE Zechariahs vision

1299-1300. Cervera Bible. Details view.

Source:  Link1,  Link2,  Link3,  Link4,  Link5,  Link6,  Link7Link8

Menorah Cervera Bible 1299

1299-1300. Cervera Bible. Source: Link 

Cervera Bible. Menorah illumination, Josef Asarfati, Castile, between 1299 and 1300 in Catalonia, Spain

1299-1300. Cervera Bible. Menorah illumination, completed by Josef Asarfati, a Jew of French origin who settled in Castile, between 1299 and 1300 in Catalonia, Spain. The Cervera Bible is among the oldest and most significant Sephardi Bibles to survive the destruction of most of the Jewish communities in the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon beginning in 1391 and the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492 and from Portugal in 1498. World Digital Libraray. Source:  Link1,  Link2,  Link3

Mishneh Torah by Maimonides with menorah 13th century middle ages

13th century (late). Mishneh Torah by Maimonides. Origin: Germany, France. Photograph Copyright: Center for Jewish Art. Source: Link

Bible MenorahnMassoretic Bible

13th century (last quarter). Munich Sephardi Massoretic Bible. Origin: Spain, Castile (Toledo or Soria). Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München (Germany), Cod.hebr. 392. Source:  Link1,  Link2,  Link3 

13th century. Bead; glass paste; decorated on obverse with a menorah; reverse, a star of David

13th century. Bead; glass paste; decorated on obverse with a menorah; reverse, a star of David; pierced longitudinally and one hole is set with a blue bead. Made in: Venice (?), Italy. Dimensions: Length: 16 mm (max). The British Museum, number OA.1432, Source: Link

Ceramic Hebrew menorah, Navacepeda de Tormes, Spain. Museo de Ávila

13th-14th century. Ceramic Brick. They are two fragments of two bricks with Hebrew epigraphy, recorded when the paste was still soft: one, used in a horizontal sense, contains the initial part of a biblical verse, the other, in vertical, a stylized seven-branched candelabrum or menorah and the name Sara. Place of Origin: Navacepeda de Tormes, Spain. Museo de Ávila (Spain). Source:  Link1Link2Link3

Bronze Stamp seven-branched candelabrum Menorah Hebrew

13th-14th century. Bronze Stamp with shield and dorsal ring shape. On the front, in the field, a seven-branched candelabrum or "Menorah", a fundamental object of the Hebrew liturgy, whose foot resembles a fleur-de-lis. A peripheral girdle framed by a molding, a bilingual legend appears in Hebrew and in Latin, both readings separated by a six-pointed star located at the top; the last syllable was inserted into the field by the recorder due to lack of space. Museo Arqueológico de Sevilla. Source: Link

Medieval menorah Spear trident Antique Weapon

13th-15th century. 15" Medieval Spear trident Antique Weapon. The shape is reminiscent of the MenorahDimensions: Length: 15.1" (38.5 cm)   Width max: 11.4" (29 cm). Balkan Found. Source: Link

Menorah fragment Cathedral John Baptist Rome, Italy Basilica candelabrum stone

13th century. Menorah fragment. The Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in the Lateran, (Italian: Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano) - also known as the Papal Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, St. John Lateran, or the Lateran Basilica - is the cathedral church of the Diocese of Rome, Italy and therefore houses the cathedra, or ecclesiastical seat, of the Bishop of Rome, the Pope. Source: Link

Paderborn Leuchter Menorah Church Kirche

1300 (ca.). A seven-armed brass stand lamp, which today stands behind the altar in the choir, still refers to the Jerusalem tradition. He is 2.15 m high and on its hemispherical foot animals are depicted. The Busdorf Church is a church in Paderborn (Germany), which was built after the model of the Grab Church in Jerusalem. The Busdorf monastery was a collegiate monastery founded in Paderborn in 1036. Source:  Link1Link2 

Stone capital known as the Palmito menorah Sinagoga del Agua, or Water Synagogue, Ubeda, Jaen, Andalusia, Spain

13th-14th century. Stone capital known as the Palmito, carved with a 7-branched palm frond, a Jewish symbol representing the menorah, in the Sinagoga del Agua, or Water Synagogue, Ubeda, Jaen, Andalusia, Spain. This recently discovered building is thought to be an 11th - 14th century synagogue, with yard, cellar, balcony, living room and mikveh, or Jewish ritual purification bath, fed by 7 connecting wells. Picture by Manel Cohen, Scala, Florence. Source: Link


Menorah Pictures from other Centuries:

Until the 1st,   2nd,   3rd,   4th,   5th,   6th-10th,   14th,   15th,   16th,   17th,   18th,   19th,   20th,   21st   Century


Note: It's nice to see the menorah pictures. However, according to the Bible Jesus (Hebrew Yeshua) is the true spiritual meaning behind the physical Menorah. He is the true and eternal spiritual light: "I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life" (John 8:12). The menorah also symbolizes the Tree of Life, because Jesus is the way to life: "I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me" (John 14:6). Jesus' Word and the Bible are the light in this world. "Your word is a lamp to my feet and a light to my path" (Ps 119:105 and John 1:1-17).

 

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